The native and endemic vascular flora of Lord Howe Island (31°35′S 159°05′E) is assessed for rareness and threatened status using three axes—distribution, abundance and threat. Seven angiosperms are believed to have become extinct since 1853. Of the 118 native angiosperms 25 are rare, 3 endangered and 4 vulnerable. Of the 62 endemic angiosperms 9 are rare, 1 is vulnerable. Of the 26 native ferns 5 are rare, 1 is vulnerable. Of the 17 endemic ferns, 3 are rare, 2 are endangered and 1 is vulnerable. The rarest species, known from fewer than ten individuals, are recent invaders. Proposed reserves are sufficient to protect all species except three restricted to grazed swamps or estuaries.
The parliamentary election in Poland in September 2001 accelerated upheaval in the party system. It saw the victory of a new left-wing electoral coalition led by the successor social democrats of the Democratic Left Alliance, the defeat of previous incumbents, and new entrants into Basket Blazer Femme Grise parliament. The government lost because it was weak, divided and ineffective, Blazer Nike Leopard while the opposition SLD appeared competent, professional and united. The fragmentation of the post-Solidarity right and centre provided opportunities for populist formations to make gains in a context of continuing transition-anxieties. The election marked the end of the historic division between the heirs of communism and the heirs of Solidarity.
Photorefractive materials, including traditional electro-optic photorefractive crystals as well as photopolymers and photosensitive glasses, have demonstrated their potential in information systems. In this Blazer Nike Pas Cher paper, we describe several applications of various photorefractive materials in information storage, processing, and communication systems. Specifically, we briefly review the applications of the traditional electro-optic photorefractive crystals in optical information processing and volume holographic data storage, then discuss our recent works on the applications of photopolymers, holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals, and photosensitive glasses in photonic devices for optical fiber communications.
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