Indicators of biodiversity change are of growing political relevance. To be effective, they need to meet a number of scientific requirements, some of which are not easy to fulfil. Here we use a simple typology of biodiversity indicators according to the following two requirements: (1) indicators should reflect changes in biodiversity in general rather than the ups and downs of particular species and species groups, and (2) indicators should be linked to environmental drivers. We apply this typology to existing indicators developed for the Dutch Environmental Data Compendium and describe how the typology may guide the development of indicators of biodiversity change. We conclude that more conceptual and statistical work Basket Blazer Femme Grise is needed to make better biodiversity indicators.
This paper provides descriptive evidence about the distribution of wages and skills in denser and less dense employment areas in France. We confirm that on average, workers in denser areas are more skilled. There is also strong over-representation of workers with particularly high and low skills in denser areas. These features are consistent with patterns of migration including negative selection of migrants to less dense areas and positive selection towards denser areas. Nonetheless migration, even in the long-run, accounts for little of the skill differences between denser and less dense areas. Finally, we find marked differences across age groups and some suggestions that much of the skill differences across areas Chaussure Nike Blazer can Basket Blazer Nike Pas Cher be explained by differences between occupational groups rather than within.
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