Chronic obstipation and fecal impaction in children can be difficult management problems for pediatricians. We describe a novel approach to the management of obstipation and fecal impaction: the implantation of the button gastrostomy device in the appendiceal stump or the terminal ileum. We report the procedure Chaussure Nike Blazer Noir in two children. One child had pseudoobstruction syndrome complicated by recurrent obstipation; the other had cystic fibrosis complicated by recurrent obstruction Blazer Nike Femme Leopard from meconium ileus equivalent. Both children received a polyethylene glycol/electrolyte solution, with or Basket Nike Blazer Femme without pancreatic enzymes, which was administered through the button. The children have remained essentially asymptomatic for at least 10 months. We believe that this is the first report of the use of a button gastrostomy device to successfully manage chronic obstipation and recurrent fecal impaction in children.
Repetition suppression in fMRI studies is generally thought to underlie behavioural facilitation effects (i.e., priming) and it is often used to identify the neuronal representations associated with a stimulus. However, this pays little heed to the large number of repetition enhancement effects observed under similar conditions. In this review, we identify several cognitive variables biasing repetition effects in the BOLD response towards enhancement instead of suppression. These variables are stimulus recognition, learning, attention, expectation and explicit memory. We also evaluate which models can account for these repetition effects and come to the conclusion that there is no one single model that is able to embrace all repetition enhancement effects. Accumulation, novel network formation as well as predictive coding models can all explain subsets of repetition enhancement effects.
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