General strategies are proposed by passivated co-doping in present paper to improve the photocatalytic activity of semiconductors for degradation of environmental pollutants. The ideal band gap of semiconductors for enhancement of photocatalytic activity can be lowered to match with visible light absorption and the location of the Conduction Band (CB) should be raised to meet the reducing capacity. Then we apply the strategy to anatase TiO2. It is predicted that nonmetal–metal co-doping TiO2 can modify the catalyst band edges by raising the valence band (VB) edge significantly and making the CB edge increased 0.24 eV. Therefore, the band gap for co-doping system should be narrowed to about 2.72 eV. (N, Ta) is predicted to be the target donor–acceptor combination with the band gap of 2.71 eV, which red-shifts the TiO2 absorption edge to 457.6 nm in visible range. The band engineering principle will be fit to other wide-band-gap semiconductors for enhanced photocatalytic activity.
The presence of genes encoding organellar proteins in both the nucleus and the organelle necessitates tight coordination of expression by the different genomes, and this has led to the evolution of sophisticated intracellular signaling networks. Organelle-to-nucleus signaling, or retrograde control, coordinates the expression of nuclear genes encoding organellar proteins with the metabolic and developmental state of the organelle. Complex networks Basket Nike Blazer of retrograde signals orchestrate major changes in nuclear gene expression Blazer Nike Pas Cher and coordinate cellular activities and assist the cell during plant development and stress responses. It has become clear that, even though the chloroplast depends on the nucleus for its function, plastid signals play important roles in an array of different cellular processes vital to the plant. Hence, the chloroplast exerts significant control over the running of the cell. This article Chaussure Nike Blazer is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids.
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