1. The responses of goldfish lagenar and saccular neurones were analyzed for underwater sound stimulation and head vibration in three orthogonal directions.
2. Both organs show similar sound pressure and displacement sensitivity below 200 Hz, and respond Chaussure Nike Blazer Noir to a motional stimulus component at 100 Hz.
3. Calculated directions of best sensitivity in the saggital and horizontal planes correspond with hair cell orientation maps.
4. Stimulus-response phase-angles correspond only roughly with the patterns to be expected from a simple model for hair cell stimulation.
5. Variation in the degree of coupling between hair cell cilia and the otolith, and complex three-dimensional relative motion patterns probably occur in both organs.
Acidosis is associated with inflammation and ischemia and activates cation channels in sensory neurons. Inflammation also induces expression of FMRFamide-like neuropeptides, which modulate pain. We found that neuropeptide FF (Phe-Leu-Phe-Gln-Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe Chaussures Nike Blazer Junior amide) and FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe amide) generated no current on their own but potentiated H+-gated currents from cultured sensory neurons and heterologously expressed ASIC and DRASIC channels. The neuropeptides slowed inactivation and induced sustained currents during acidification. The effects were specific; different channels showed distinct responses to the Acheter Nike Blazer Vintage Femme various peptides. These results suggest that acid-sensing ion channels may integrate multiple extracellular signals to modify sensory perception.
Speak Your Mind