Among the methods used to detect food adulteration, the amplification of endogenous reference genes is particularly important. Endogenous reference genes for many different species, such as cotton, papaya, maize and others, have been reported, yet an endogenous reference gene for the peach is still lacking. In this paper, the chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (Lhcb2) gene was identified as a species-specific gene for the peach. Lhcb2 was assayed in 4 species of peaches and 8 non-peach species by both qualitative and quantitative PCR. No amplification was observed in other species. The detection limit of quantitative PCR was as low as 5 pg of DNA, equal to 9 copies, and Southern blot analysis confirmed that the Lhcb2 gene was present in a single copy in the peach genome. All of these Blazer Nike experiments indicated that the Lhcb2 gene is a useful endogenous reference gene for the detection of peach material via both qualitative and quantitative PCR assays, even in the processed food samples such as juices containing peach.
From January 2002 to August 2007, foreign institutions held almost 70% of the free-float value of the Indonesian equity market, or 41% of the total market capitalization. Over the same period, liquidity on the Jakarta Stock Exchange improved substantially with the average bid–ask spread more than halved and the average depth more than doubled. In this study we examine the Granger causality between foreign institutional ownership and liquidity, while Basket Nike Blazer controlling for persistence in foreign ownership and liquidity Chaussure Nike Blazer Basse measures. We find that foreign holdings have a negative impact on future liquidity: a 10% increase in foreign institutional ownership in the current month is associated with approximately 2% increase in the bid–ask spread, 3% decrease in depth, and 4% rise in price sensitivity in the next month, challenging the view that foreign institutions enhance liquidity in small emerging markets. Our findings are consistent with the negative liquidity impact of institutional investor ownership in developed markets.
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