This paper re-examines a syntactic typology of small clause constructions, based on new crosslinguistic evidence from languages that allow two different kinds of copula elements: verbal copulas and pronominal copulas. Such languages include Arabic (Eid, 1983), Hebrew (17 and 40), Russian (Pereltsvaig, 2001), Polish (Rothstein, 1986), Scottish Gaelic (Adger and Ramchand, 2003), among Blazer Nike Noir others. The two types of copular constructions in these languages have been argued to correlate with a difference in interpretation along the predicational/equative dimension, and with a structural difference involving the size of the small clause. This paper re-examines both semantic and syntactic differences between the two types, focusing on new data from Polish. It focuses on selection, case, extraction possibilities, and interpretation, and argues that the differences between the two types of small clauses lie not in the size of the small clause, but in the featural make-up of the functional projection heading it.
We study cosmological braneworld models with a single timelike extra dimension. Such models admit the intriguing possibility that a contracting braneworld experiences a natural bounce without ever reaching a singular state. This feature persists in the case of anisotropic braneworlds under some additional and not very restrictive assumptions. Generalizing our study to braneworld models containing an induced brane curvature term, we find that a FRW-type singularity is once again absent if the bulk extra dimension is timelike. In this case, the universe either has a non-singular origin or commences its expansion from a quasi-singular state during which both the Hubble parameter and the energy density and pressure remain finite while the curvature tensor diverges. The non-singular and quasi-singular behaviour which we have Acheter Nike Blazer Vintage Femme discovered differs both qualitatively and quantitatively from what is usually Basket Nike Blazer Femme Noir observed in braneworld models with spacelike extra dimensions and could have interesting cosmological implications.
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