The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring geothermal energy from existing abandoned oil and gas wells. The equations describing the heat exchange between fluid and rocks are developed, and parametric studies are conducted in order to specify the optimum values of the main parameters. Chaussure Nike Blazer Noir Computational results indicate that the geothermal energy produced from abandoned wells depends largely on the flow rate of fluid and the geothermal gradient. The temperature of extracted liquid is 129.88 °C, and it drops to 127.92 °C after ten years of operation. Basket Nike Blazer Femme It is observed that both hot water and electricity can be acquired from the abandoned wells. Results also indicate that the distance of two wells should not be less than 40 m in order to avoid interaction between them. Furthermore, the financial reward of electricity Acheter Blazer Homme is 36833.26 US $/year for a retrofitted well.
A review of literatures reveals that many empirical researches on nutritional label in relation with consumer buying decision process have been carried out over the last twenty years. Nonetheless, the extent on how the concept of nutritional label was defined and used in the studies on food product buying decision tends to be varied from one study to another. Furthermore, the role of nutritional label in food product buying decision has not been made clear. This paper is presented with the aim to summarise and draw the common definition of nutritional label found in the previous studies. Beside that, this paper also discusses the types of label formats that could influence the use of nutritional label amongst consumers. In addition, the paper also rationalises the roles of nutritional label in consumer decision in buying healthy foods and highlights the relevant issues for future research undertakings.
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