We study certain classes of supermodular and submodular games which are symmetric with respect to material payoffs but in which not all players seek to maximize their material payoffs. Specifically, a subset of players have negatively interdependent preferences and care not only about their own material payoffs but also about their payoffs relative to others. We identify sufficient conditions under which members of the latter group have a strategic advantage in the following sense: at all intragroup symmetric equilibria of the game, they earn strictly higher material payoffs than do players who seek to maximize their material payoffs. The conditions are satisfied by a number of games of economic importance. We discuss the implications of these findings for the evolutionary theory of preference formation and the theory of strategic delegation. Journal of Economic Literature Classification Numbers: C72, D62.
Alemaya and Hora-Kilole are small lakes found in central and southeastern parts of Ethiopia at similar altitudes. These lakes are exposed to contrasting human interventions. From Lake Alemaya water is withdrawn, while water is added to Lake Hora-Kilole because agricultural experts diverted flow from an adjacent river Nike Blazer Achat by constructing a weir. As a result, Blazer Noir Lake Alemaya is continually shrinking due to uncontrolled water withdrawal for irrigation and municipal uses but Lake Hora-Kilole, now a reservoir, has increased in volume. Such uncontrolled contrasting anthropogenic intervention has caused ecological changes as observed from various limnological parameters. The problems of conserving these two tropical African lakes and the plankton contained in them are noted. Based on the present scenario, suggestions are forwarded Chaussure Nike Blazer as to what should be done with these lakes and similar situations elsewhere in the tropics.
Speak Your Mind