We study three conditions of independence within evidence theory framework. The first condition refers to the selection of pairs of focal sets. The remaining two ones are related to the choice of a pair of elements, once a pair of focal sets has been selected. These three concepts allow us to formalize the ideas of Basket Blazer Bebe lack of interaction among variables and among their (imprecise) observations. We illustrate the difference between both types of independence with simple examples about drawing balls from urns. We show that there are Basket Nike Blazer Pour Femme no implication relationships between both of them. We also study the relationships between the concepts of “independence in the selection” and “random set independence”, showing that they cannot be simultaneously satisfied, except in some very particular cases.
This paper uses the Interpretation Construction Design Model proposed by Black and McClintock (1996) [An interpretation construction approach to constructivist design. In: Wilson, B. (Ed.), Constructivist Learning Environments. Educational Technology Chaussures Nike Blazer Junior Publications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ] to illustrate constructivist science teaching. The author discusses eight principles for constructivist-oriented science instruction, including observations in authentic activities, interpretation construction, contextualizing prior knowledge, cognitive conflict, cognitive apprenticeship, collaboration, multiple interpretations, and multiple manifestations. This paper further discusses the possibility of applying these instructional principles to Internet-based science instruction, describing recent attempts in Taiwan.
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