In this research we investigated the spreading of polyisobutylene solutions in polybutene on glass surfaces by measuring contact line speed as a function of dynamic contact angle. Polymer concentration was less than twice the coil overlap concentration (2c*). The contact line motion of polymer solutions was qualitatively similar to that of Newtonian liquid in that it followed the Tanner–Voinov–Hoffman relation. However the contact line speed was strongly affected by the migration of polymer molecules away from the wall due to the hydrodynamic interaction between the polymer and the wall at the contact Basket Nike Blazer Femme line region. The hydrodynamic interaction is caused by the elasticity of polymer molecules in the shear flow. However, the elasticity of the polymer solution did not directly affect the bulk motion strongly since Chaussures Nike Blazer Junior the Deborah number of the bulk motion was less than 0.1. The present result can be used in the derivation of the boundary condition for solving free surface flows of viscoelastic fluid on a solid surface.
Oxide semiconductors have been examined to develop NOx sensors for exhaust monitoring. Titania doped with trivalent elements, such as Al3+, Sc3+, Ga3+ or In3+, has a good sensitivity and selectivity to NO between 450 and 550 °C, and shows rapid response. A sensor probe for monitoring exhaust NOx has been fabricated. Many kinds of interference gases, such as C3H6, CO and SO2, have been found to have only a slight influence on the sensor response to NO. The influence of O2 and H2O is also negligible, except for the cases of 0% H2O Blazer Nike Femme and fuel-rich conditions. In accordance with these results, the sensor probe operates satisfactority in the exhaust gas of various combustion conditions without interference from the various kinds of gas species in the exhaust gases.
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