The field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) is becoming a standard method of characterizing pollutant emissions from building materials. It is significant to use the emission profiles from FLEC to scale the emissions of building materials in real buildings. The dynamics of mass transfer in such an FLEC are the key to perform this task. In this study, the mass transfer mechanisms of the total volatile organic compounds from a wet painting in an FLEC are experimentally and numerically investigated. A three-dimensional mass transfer model, which takes into account the convective mass transfer between the material and the air, the diffusion in the paint film and in the substrate, is developed. The emissions from Blazer Nike a water-based emulsion paint are quantified to assess the model. The concentration fields in the film and substrate are calculated to demonstrate the processes of internal volatile organic compounds diffusion.
A simple procedure is currently used to determine the effective pipe length associated with the instability of circumferential crack growth in a piping system. This procedure involves a separation of the complete piping system into two elastic parts at the cracked cross-section, the application of equal and opposite moments M to the cut faces, and the equation of the effective pipe length with where φ is the rotational discontinuity generated at this section, E Chaussure Nike Blazer Basse is Young's modulus and I is the second moment of area of the pipe at the cracked section. It is presumed that the pipe-ends remain fixed, i.e. they are built-in, throughout this operation. This paper shows that this procedure refers to the stability of a crack in a piping system which is subject to either a fixed displacement or a fixed rotation at Blazer Nike Homme Solde a built-in end. The viability of the simple procedure is therefore underscored by the present paper's analysis.
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